Written By: Josh Schueller, PT
Just the other day, a 21 year old patient with spinal cord injury actually started asking me how my neurostim device affects cellular regeneration and THE KREBS CYCLE.
So my presentation begins.
HOW THE BODY ACTUALLY HEALS
From burns to infections, inflammation to tears and breaks, the body's regenerative qualities can be best illustrated through its metabolic design - mitigating its ability to heal itself on a cellular level. Upon physical damage or disease, self recovery involves the regeneration and repair of living tissue(s), organs and its functions. THERAPY covers external influences on the body's cellular performance to restore damaged areas either by replacing worn/dead tissue with new ones. 
For something like the KREBS CYCLE, I usually start such complex scientific explanations with my patients using metaphors and analogies.
|Academic Breakdown: Krebs Cycle
By: IPHA/Pain Healers Alliance newsletter
riCarboxylic Acid) Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle, the Krebs cycle occurs in eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) in the matrix of the mitochondria and the cytosol of prokaryotes (no distinct nucleus). In a living organism, the TCA cycle is a series of reactions in which oxidation of Acetic Acid/glucose provides energy for storage in phosphate bonds (ATP). Fuel for this comes from lipids and carbohydrates, which produce Acetyl-CoA. These reactions are the major source of energy in all living organisms.
Critical in the building blocks for synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, cholesterol, amino acids for building proteins and purines and pyrimidines used in the synthesis of DNA. The byproducts of the Krebs’s Cycle are 3 NADH, 1 FADHL, 1 GTP, and 2 CO2. (3) The cycle runs twice for glucose and then the electron transport chain produces ATP. The electron transport chain is a series of reactions inside the cell whose purpose is the formation of ATP. By studying the rates, by-products, enzymatic activity and qualities in the processes of metabolism the potential to draw conclusion about and investigate the efficiency of therapies.
Glucose into mitochondria to go through Krebs Cycle (NADH, FADHL, GTP, CO2 byproducts) electron transport chain into ATP (energy)
Disorders of the Krebs Cycle such as 2-Oxoglutaric aciduria and fumarase deficiency affects mitochondrial function and maintenance. This can cause developmental delays, severe neurologic problems in infants like mental retardation. Clinical presentation of mitochondrial depletion syndrome is hypotonia, progressive dystonia, muscle atrophy and hearing impairments. (5)
Traditional cancer treatments have been relatively effective, but with significant side effects and a high reoccurrence rate. Alternative treatment approaches are gaining in medical significant and are becoming increasingly more difficult to ignore. Identifying changes in the Krebs cycle could hold the key to early detection of chronic diseases, including cancers. Early detection is significant in establishing more efficient treatment programs with less side effects. Establishing safe and effective treatments for chronic disease can improve survival, but can also improve the quality of life for many. In the future, dying with cancer not from cancer is becoming more likely.
Currently, regenerative medicine is becoming more and more mainstream. Traditional surgery and chemotherapy and radiation show a high reoccurrence of cancer. Stem cells are showing good promise in treatment of many cancers. Stem Cells function serves as novel delivery platform by targeting primary metastatic tumors. Stem cells have shown to decrease tumor volume and extend survival in preliminary studies. Unique properties are found in regenerative medicine such as immunosuppression and mitigation towards cancer can assist in gene therapy applications. Many regenerative medicines have anti-tumor properties. Natural killer (NK) cells may have the ability to attack tumor/cancer cells/infected cells at the early stage.
When considering energy production and utilization, we must first look to the immune system and its ability to detoxify, repair, replace and replenish. This means a thorough understanding of our patient’s epigenetics and how their unique diet, lifestyle and environment influence their genes. The elimination of refined foods, preservatives and chemicals can assist in minimizing toxicity. Movement and exercise can assist in speeding up the basal metabolic rate, thereby shortening the time the body needs to work daily on working toward homeostasis. Minimizing toxicity and speeding up the basal metabolic rate is energy-preserving. In addition, stress management can help to dampen the adrenal response which has been shown to be a direct inhibitor of immune function. Also, sleep hygiene is critical for our patients as it is in deep states of sleep that the body does its best work to achieve homeostasis.
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2).Scaglioa et. Al. March 2020 “The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle at the Crossroad Between Cancer and Immunity”. Mitochondria and Mitophagy . Antioxidants and Redox Signaling Vol 32, No 12
3) Zhang et. Al. Sept 2017 “ Stem Cells in Cancer Therapies: opportunities and challenges” Oncotarget 8 (43) 75756-75766
4) Millipore Sigma “ The Krebs Cycle- Harnessing Chemical Energy for Cellular Respiration”
4. Bachanova and Miller 2014. “NK Cells in Therapy of Cancer” Crit Rev Oncog; 2014 19(0) 133-141
6. Vadala et. Al. “Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology” Cancer Medicine 2016; 5 (11) 3128-3130Mansouri et. Al. “Recent advances in regenerative medicine strategies for cancer treatment” Biomedicien and Pha